Abscess: an infection of a tooth, soft tissue or bone.

Abutment: The part of a structure that gives the support to the fixed partial dentures.

Air Abrasion: Type of micro abrasion in which a jet of air blows tiny particles against the tooth or cavity surface.

Allergy: Altered body reaction as a response to exposure to a specific substance

Alveolar Bone: the specialized bone structure that contains the sockets of the teeth and supports the teeth.

Amalgam: a common filling material used to repair cavities. The material, also known as "silver fillings," contains mercury in combination with silver, tin, copper, and sometimes zinc

Analgesia: absence or relief of pain.

Anaesthesia: loss of pain sensation, usually by damage to nerve or by administration of a drug.

Anterior Teeth: teeth situated at the front of mouth

Antibiotic: a chemical substance which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of or to kill micro organisms

ANUG: a painful infection seen in those with poor oral hygiene and malnutrition, involving interdental papillae, fetid breath; increased salivation; and spontaneous gingival hemorrhage.

Apicoectomy: Surgical removal of a root apex or apical portion of root of a tooth

Arch: curving structure formed by the teeth in their normal position

Baby Teeth: the temporary set of teeth that erupt in the young and are shed before or near maturity

Base: the lowest portion of a denture that overlies the soft tissue

Biopsy: microscopic removal and examination of tissue from the living body.

Bite Occlusion: relation between teeth when jaws are closed

Black Hairy Tongue:   hairy tongue in which the papillae are brown or black.

Block Injection: regional anaesthesia by injection of anaesthetics close to the appropriate nerve

Bone Loss:  apical shifting of the level of the alveolar crest, resulting in decreased bone support for the teeth.

Bone Resoprtion:   destruction or solution of the elements of bone

Bruxism:   habit of grinding the teeth at night during sleep time.

Bruxomania:  habit of grinding teeth during day time.

Calcium:   a chemical element

Calculus: an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts

Canker Sores: small painful, self healing ulcers that appear inside the mouth.

Cantilever Bridge:   a bridge having an artificial tooth attached beyond the point of anchorage of the bridge

Cavitron:   mechanical device used to clean teeth.

Cellulitis:   A spreading inflammation of subcutaneous or connective tissue

Cementum:   A bonelike substance covering the root of a tooth.

Composite Filling: tooth coloured filling material

Curettage:   The removal of tissue by scraping with an instrument called as curette

Cyst:   An abnormal closed sac containing a gaseous, liquid, or semisolid substance.

Dental Amalgam:  an alloy of mercury with another metal (usually silver) used by dentists to fill cavities in teeth

Dental Cleaning:  practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to prevent dental problems and bad breath

Dental Crowns:   type of dental restoration which completely encircles a tooth.

Dental Implants: artificial tooth root used in dentistry to support restorations that resemble a tooth or group of teeth

Dental Trauma:   injury to the mouth, including teeth, lips, gums, tongue, and jawbone

Dentine:  one of the hard tissues of the teeth which lies between the pulp cavity and the enamel

Denturism:  practice by denturists of making artificial dentures and fitting them to patients.

Diastema: a space between two adjacent teeth in the same dental arch.

Eruption:   process of a tooth breaking through the gum tissue to grow into place in the mouth.

Explorer:  sharp, pointed probe used on tooth surfaces to detect caries or other defects

Extraction: the removal of a tooth from its socket from the oral cavity

Eye Teeth:  the third tooth on either side from the midline in each jaw.

Fistula: an abnormal passage between two internal organs or from an internal organ to the body surface.

Flap Surgery: section of tissue moved from one area of the body to another

Frenum: An instrument used for extraction or grasping tissues especially in surgery and for handling surgical dressings.

Frenectomy:  surgical detachment of frenum

Full Denture:  an appliance replacing all the teeth of one jaw, as well as associated structures of the jaw.

General Anesthesia: a state of unconsciousness or deep sleep which makes the whole body free of pain.

Geographic Tongue: appearance of multiple sensitive patches on the tongue which cause in change in the colour and texture of the tongue.

Gingiva: the tissue that covers the teeth and surrounding bone.

Gingivectomy : excision of excessive gum tissue.

Gingivitis: reversible condition which affects only the gums which become swollen and bleed easily.

Grinding Teeth (Bruxism): habit of clenching teeth which causes loss of tooth structure and fatigue of jaw muscles.

Gum Boil: abscess formed on the gum tissue due to infection drainage.

Guided Tissue Regeneration(GTR): technique which helps in replacement of the bone tissue as desired.

Halitosis (Bad Breath): bad breath from mouth due to oral or systemic problem.

Hydrogen Peroxide: an oxidising agent which can be used as a disinfectant or as a bleaching agent.

Hyperemia: area of increased blood flow.

Impacted Teeth: teeth which fail to erupt to normal occlusion by themselves due any possible reason.

Incision and Drainage: making a cut in the abscess to allow escape of the pus.

Incisors: the front teeth which help in biting.

Indirect Fillings: a filling which is made outside the mouth on the cast.

Inlay: is an indirect intracoronal restorations which is fabricated in the laboratory and then cemented to the tooth.

Intraoral Camera: a small camera used to view and magnify the various oral conditions.

Jacket : a cap made for the front tooth to provide strength.

Laughing Gas: it is basically another name for nitrous oxide which is used as a conscious sedation agent.

Local Anesthesia: loss of pain in a localised area without loss of consciousness.

Malocclusion:  improper arrangement of the upper and lower teeth.

Mandible – lower jaw bone.

Maryland Bridge: a fixed partial denture which is cemented only to the lingual surfaces of the adjacent teeth.

Maxilla: the upper jaw bone.

Milk Teeth: the set of teeth present in children, also known as deciduous or primary teeth which shed off giving place to permanent teeth.

Molars: the posterior teeth which help in chewing food.

Nerve:  tissue which helps to convey various sensations to the brain.

Night Guard: appliance which is worn at night to protect against the harmful effects of bruxism.

Novocaine:  name for many kinds of anesthetics.

Composite: a tooth coloured filling material which is composed mainly of polymers with fillers added to it.

Oral & Maxillofacial Surgeon: dentist which specifically deals with the surgeries involving oral cavity.

Oral Cavity: the mouth.

Oral Hygiene: cleanliness of the mouth or oral cavity.

Oral Surgery: branch of dentistry which deals with the various minor and major surgeries involving the oral cavity and its structures.

Orthodontics: branch of dentistry which deals with the treatment of malaligned teeth.

Over Dentures: denture which is placed over the remaining teeth or the roots or the implants to provide better retention to the denture.

Paresthesia: partial loss of sensation.

Partial Dentures: removable or fixed appliance which replaces one or more lost tooth but not all.

Pedodontics:  branch of dentistry that deals with the dental problems of children.

Periodontics: branch of dentistry that deals with the tissues surrounding the teeth.

Pit : a small defect in the enamel formed at the junction of lobes of developing tooth.

Placebo: treatment based on the psychological satisfaction of the patient which does not have any actual affect.

Plaque: a soft, sticky film which attaches to the tooth surface and is composed of bacteria and food debris.

Pontic: artificial tooth which replaces the natural missing tooth in a fixed partial denture.

Porcelain Crown: the porcelain restoration that covers the coronal portion i.e. Crown of the tooth.

Porcelain Inlays & Onlays: indirect filling made of porcelain and cemented into the tooth.

Porcelain Veneers: a thin layer of porcelain which is cemented on the anterior teeth mainly to improve the colour and shape of the tooth.

Post: a projection which is fitted into the prepared root canal to provide retention to the restorative material.

Post core: post and a central build up which replaces the lost tooth structure and receives the crown.

Post crown: single restoration which includes both post-core and crown.

Prosthesis: appliance which replaces the lost body parts or oral structures.

Prosthodontist: a dentist who deals specifically with the replacement of lost tooth, structures and maintenance of proper occlusion.

Pulp: the innermost layer of the tooth which has both the nerve supply and the blood supply.

Pulp Cap: it consists of medication which is placed over an accidently exposed vital pulp tissue to promote its healing.

Pulp Chamber: the central portion of the crown of the tooth which contains pulp.

Pulpectomy: the complete removal of the pulp from the root canals and filling of the space with an inert material.

Pulpitis: inflammation of the pulp tissue.

Pulpotomy: is the removal of coronal pulp only, to maintain the vitality of the radicular pulp by placing adequate dressing.

Pyrrhoea: common term used for gum disease.

Reimplantation: Replacement of tissue or a structure such as tooth in the site from which it was previously lost or removed

Reline: To resurface the tissue side of a denture with new base material so that it will fit more accurately.

Restoration: Any tooth filling or prosthesis that restores lost tooth structure.

Retained Root: The tooth root which is not resorbed at the appropriate time

Root Canal: A relatively narrow tubular channel that extends from the pulp chamber to the apical foramen

Root Canal Therapy: That aspect of endodontics dealing with the treatment of diseases of the dental pulp, cleaning, shaping and obturation of the canal.

Root Resection: Surgical removal of a dental root apex or apical portion of root.

Rubber Dam: a thin sheet of latex rubber used to isolate teeth from mouth fluids during dental therapy.

Saliva: The watery mixture of secretions from the salivary and oral mucous glands that lubricates chewed food, moistens the oral cavity.,

Saliva Ejector: a device used to remove saliva from a dental field of operation

Salivary Gland: Glands that secrete saliva into the mouth and helps in digestion.

Scaling: The removal of deposits from the teeth

Sealant: Agent that is painted over teeth to seal out food particles and acids produced by bacteria.

Secondary Dentine: dentine laid down in later development of a tooth.

Sleep Apnoea: a condition in which breathing stops for more than ten seconds during sleep

Space Maintainer: appliance that is worn to prevent adjacent teeth from moving into the space created by the unerupted or prematurely lost tooth.

Supernumerary Tooth: any tooth in addition to the normal 32 teeth in the secondary dentition or the 20 teeth in the primary dentition

Tartar: A hard, yellowish deposit on the teeth, consisting of organic secretions and food particles deposited in various salts, such as calcium carbonate

Temporomandibular Disorder: disorder associated with one or both of the temporomandibular joints

Temporomandibular Joint: The jaw joint formed by the lower jaw bone moving against the temporal bone of the skull.

Tooth Abrasion: abnormal wearing away of tooth substance caused by mechanical source.

Tooth Abscess: a collection of pus on a tooth.

Tooth Bud: A small, rounded anatomical structure from which a tooth is formed.

Tooth Decay: destruction of the outer surface (enamel) of a tooth.

Tooth Enamel: hard white substance covering the crown of a tooth.

Tooth Filling: dental restorative material used to restore the function, integrity and morphology of missing tooth structure

Tooth Whitening: common procedure in general dentistry to remove stains caused by bacterial pigments, foodstuffs, tobacco and antibiotics.

Torus: a swelling or bulging projection caused by bone or muscle.

Trench Mouth: acute lesion of the mouth, gums, and throat accompanied by ulceration and necrosis of the gum margin, destruction of the interdental papillae, and foul breath

Unerupted Tooth: tooth which not yet perforated the oral mucosa.

Veneer: a layer of tooth-colored material attached to the surface of an artificial tooth

Wisdom Tooth: the last molar tooth on either side in each jaw.

Xerostomia: Dryness of the mouth resulting from decreased salivary secretion.

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